AHPP runs its own working paper series and regularly contributes edited volumes that are distributed through the Walter H. Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center’s publishing program. Our faculty and researchers also publish extensively in peer-reviewed academic journals and in scholarly and trade presses. Browse our publications below.
A new volume, 'Healthy Aging in Asia,' edited by Karen Eggleston, examines multiple aspects of policy initiatives for healthy longevity and economic research on chronic disease control in diverse health systems across Asia.
AHPP Working Paper Series
Health insurance holds the promise of improving population health and survival and protecting people from catastrophic health spending. Yet evidence from lower- and middle-income countries on the impact of health insurance is limited. We investigated whether insurance expansion reduced adult mortality in rural China, taking advantage of differences across Chinese counties in the timing of the introduction of the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS).
It has been well established that better educated individuals enjoy better health and longevity. In theory, the educational gradients in health could be flattening if diminishing returns to improved average education levels and the influence of earlier population health interventions outweigh the gradient-steepening effects of new medical and health technologies. This paper documents how the gradients are evolving in China, a rapidly developing country, about which little is known on this topic.
Expanding access through insurance expansion can increase health‐care utilization through moral hazard. Reforming provider incentives to introduce more supply‐side cost sharing is increasingly viewed as crucial for affordable, sustainable access. Using both difference‐in‐differences and segmented regression analyses on a panel of 1,466 hypertensive and diabetic patients, we empirically examine Shandong province's initial implementation of China's 2009 Essential Medications List policy. The policy reduced drug sale markups to providers but also increased drug coverage benefits for patients.
"Health Insurance and Chronic Disease Control: Quasi-experimental Evidence from Hypertension in Rural China" is a chapter within the volume China's Healthcare System and Reform. The volume provides a comprehensive review of China’s healthcare system and policy reforms in the context of the global economy. Following a valuechain framework, the 16 chapters cover the payers, the providers, and the producers (manufacturers) in China’s system.
Scholars at Stanford's Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center in the Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies assess the strategic situation in East Asia to be unsettled, unstable, and drifting in ways unfavorable for American interests. These developments are worrisome to countries in the region, most of which want the United States to reduce uncertainty about American intentions by taking early and effective steps to clarify and solidify U.S. engagement. In the absence of such steps, they will seek to reduce uncertainty and protect their own interests in ways that reduce U.S.
Abstract. Sex differences in mortality (SDIM) vary over time and place as a function of social, health, and medical circumstances. The magnitude of these variations, and their response to large socioeconomic changes, suggest that biological differences cannot fully account for sex differences in survival. We develop a set of empiric observations about SDIM with which any theory will have to contend.
Between 1950 and 1980, China experienced the most rapid sustained increase in life expectancy in documented global history. However, no study of which we are aware has quantitatively assessed the relative importance of the various explanations proposed for these gains in survival.
Sex differences in mortality (SDIM) vary over time and place as a function of social, health, and medical circumstances. The magnitude of these variations, and their response to large socioeconomic changes, suggest that biological differences cannot fully account for sex differences in survival. We develop a set of empiric observations about SDIM with which any theory will have to contend.
Sex differences in mortality vary over time and place as a function of social, health, and medical circumstances. The magnitude of these variations, and their response to large socioeconomic changes, suggest that biological differences cannot fully account for sex differences in survival. Drawing on a wide swath of mortality data across countries and over time, we develop a set of empiric observations with which any theory about excess male mortality and its correlates will have to contend.
The world’s two most populous countries face numerous policy challenges from rapid demographic change. Drawing on social science expertise from China, India, and the United States, the contributors examine the social and economic challenges for policies across a range of domains, from China’s changed family planning policies and India’s efforts to address gender imbalance, to both countries’ policies regarding old-age support, human capital investment, poverty alleviation, and broader issues of governance.
Sections focus on:
In this article, I consider what a casual observer can see of a notorious product’s primary place of fabrication. Few products have been criticized in recent years more than cigarettes. Meanwhile, around the world, the factories manufacturing cigarettes rarely come under scrutiny. What have been the optics helping these key links in the cigarette supply chain to be overlooked? What has prompted such optics to be adopted and to what effect? I address these questions using a comparative approach and drawing upon new mapping techniques, fieldwork, and social theory.
China and India account for nearly 36% of the world’s population. The two countries are expected to see an unprecedented, accelerated rate in elderly populations, a shift that has already begun and will continue in the years ahead as life expectancy continues to increase and fertility to decrease or remain below replacement levels. Examining demographic changes can offer a unique opportunity to enrich the theoretical and empirical understanding of the economic aspects of population ageing. This special issue of the Journal of the Economics of Ageing, coedited by David E. Bloom, the Clarence James Gamble Professor of Economics and Demography at Harvard University, and Karen Eggleston, a Center Fellow at the Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center at Stanford University, is a diverse collection of micro- and macro-economic research on ageing in China and India. This introduction, co-written by Bloom and Eggleston, provides background context to demographic trends in China and India, connections between demographic and economic changes and possible behavioral and policy responses. The introduction also gives a preview of the main contributions of the 10 articles featured in the special issue, which cover topics such as the impact of non-communicable diseases in China and India, how parents’ expectations of co-residence with their children affects educational outcomes, and the prevention of cognitive decline in China.
Objective: This study focuses on Hangzhou, a Chinese city with a population of nine million urban and rural residents, to examine the successful development and innovation experience of its primary health care service system during the new health reform in China since 2009 and then disseminate the findings through international third parties.
The decreasing effectiveness of antimicrobial agents is a growing global public health concern. Low-income and middle-income countries are vulnerable to the loss of antimicrobial efficacy because of their high burden of infectious disease and the cost of treating resistant organisms. We aimed to assess if copayments in the public sector promoted the development of antibiotic resistance by inducing patients to purchase treatment from less well regulated private providers.
Between 1950 and 1980, China experienced the most rapid sustained increase in life expectancy of any population in documented global history. We know of no study that has quantitatively assessed the relative importance of the various explanations proposed for this gain in survival. We have created and analysed a new, province-level panel data set spanning the decades between 1950 and 1980 by combining historical information from China's public health archives, official provincial yearbooks, and infant and child mortality records contained in the 1988 National Survey of Fertility and Contraception. Although exploratory, our results suggest that gains in school enrolment and public health campaigns together are associated with 55–70 per cent of China's dramatic reductions in infant and under-5 mortality during our study period. These results underscore the importance of non-medical determinants of population health, and suggest that, in some circumstances, general education of the population may amplify the effectiveness of public health interventions.
We estimate the degree of supplier-induced demand for newborn treatment by exploiting changes in reimbursement arising from the introduction of the partial prospective payment system (PPS) in Japan. Under the partial PPS, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) utilization became relatively more profitable than other procedures, since it was excluded from prospective payments.
How do demand- and supply-side incentives interact, when there are potentially large provider income effects? We develop a simple model and empirically test it with data from China’s Essential Medications List (EML) policy, which reduced patient copayments and changed provider incentives by removing a large source of revenue from primary care providers: drug dispensing revenues.