Asia's generally dismal record up to 1990 as a provider of brand-name services, despite efforts by Japan and Korea in banking, retail and software, turned around in the 1990s with the rise of China and India. India, particularly, has made its name providing IT-enabled services. While the exports were initially confined to software programming and later call-centers, after 2000 the range and depth of work changed dramatically.
The list, as of 2009, includes scientific research and development, financial services, market research, data-mining, call-centers and a host of other services. Largely, the services are located in the vertical termed "professional, scientific and technical services".
The Globalization of Services conference series has, since 2005, explored the factors driving the changes, as these have evolved from the provision of digitized work based on cost-arbitrage to providing sophisticated skills and catering to new markets.